Ce que toute femme enceinte (ou qui désire l’être) devrait savoir

De plus en plus de femmes se tournent vers la chiropratique pour soulager les inconforts qui font trop souvent surface durant la grossesse. Toutefois, ce qu’elles expérimentent va bien au-delà du soulagement et ce n’est pas qu’une question de perception.

Il y a quelques années, un groupe de chercheurs a voulu comprendre comment le plancher pelvien se comporterait pendant l’accouchement si on rétablissait l’équilibre naturel du système nerveux qui le contrôle et celui du bassin. L’étude a débuté par la collaboration d’une sage-femme, Dre Jenny Kruger, et d’une chercheure en chiropratique, Dre Heidi Haavik. Une telle étude n’avait encore jamais été faite et les résultats, actuellement en publication, sont incroyablement encourageants : l’ajustement chiropratique permettrait une meilleure détente des muscles du plancher pelvien chez la femme enceinte [1].

Un peu d’anatomie

Le plancher pelvien est composé de trois couches musculaires qui s’étendent du pubis au coccyx. Ensemble, elles referment la base du bassin et permettent le support des viscères, comme un hamac le ferait. En plus de cette fonction vitale, les muscles du plancher pelvien permettent de stabiliser les articulations de votre bassin et d’assurer la fermeture du sphincter urinaire et anal (empêche de perdre de l’urine ou de souffrir d’incontinence fécale).

Lorsque vous êtes enceinte, ces muscles doivent être en pleine forme. Ils doivent supporter l’utérus qui grossit et s’alourdit de jour en jour en plus de stabiliser les articulations du bassin qui deviennent très souples, mais aussi souvent instables (ce qui mène aux maux de dos et à la sciatalgie). Tout ça sans compter leur rôle majeur à la suite de l’accouchement pour éviter les pertes d’urine et d’autres complications comme le prolapsus du vagin et la descente de l’utérus. [2] En bref, les muscles du plancher pelvien s’assurent que tout tient en place!

Que se passe-t-il durant l’accouchement?

Toutefois, le plancher pelvien ne sert pas qu’au soutien. Durant le travail (actif et passif), l’habileté d’une femme à relâcher ses muscles pelviens est essentielle pour aider son bébé à descendre graduellement dans le canal vaginal. Si elle n’y arrive pas, elle s’épuise plus vite et les risques d’interventions pour assister la naissance augmentent. Dans un monde idéal, le plancher pelvien devrait pouvoir travailler en intervalles de contractions et de relâchements pour assurer une naissance naturelle [1]. Et c’est là que la chiropratique peut jouer un rôle important.

Donc oui, chiropratique et femmes enceintes vont de paire! Les auteurs de l’étude prétendent que ce relâchement musculaire aurait le potentiel d’augmenter le niveau de contrôle de la femme sur ses muscles pelviens durant l’accouchement. Cela pourrait en retour faciliter la naissance par voie naturelle [3]. Sans compter que si les articulations du bassin sont en équilibre (mouvement et alignement), le bébé a beaucoup plus d’aisance pour faire son chemin dans le canal vaginal.

Conseil de mamans

Les mamans sont nombreuses à le dire : un suivi de grossesse en chiropratique prépare le terrain pour un accouchement plus confortable et sécuritaire pour la femme et le bébé [4]. Le but est de permettre à la femme de retrouver son équilibre physiologique naturel afin de pouvoir donner naissance comme la nature l’a prévu. Des techniques spécifiques et adaptées ont même été développées en chiropratique pour prendre soin de la femme enceinte et du petit être qu’elle porte dans son nid, et ce, tout en douceur. Si vous êtes enceinte, n’attendez pas la fin de votre grossesse pour préparer votre accouchement. Faites-le dès le début avec l’accompagnement de votre chiropraticien de famille.

« J’espère, avec mon travail, augmenter les chances que les femmes puissent mettre au monde leurs enfants de façon naturelle et sans complication [5]. »

– Dre Heidi Haavik, PhD

 

 

 

Références

[1] H. Haavik et al. Pelvic floor functional changes with spinal manipulation in pregnant and non-pregnant women: A pilot study. JMPT 2016. In Press.

[2] //www.babycenter.com.au/a536339/your-pelvic-floor-in-pregnancy

[3] Spinal Research, Ground-breaking study approved for publication: Chiropractic and pelvic floor control, Mars 2016. //spinalresearch.com.au/ground-breaking-study-approved-publication-chiropractic-pelvic-floor-control-3/

[4] Cara L. Borggren. Pregnancy and chiropractic: a narrative review of the literature. J Chiropr Med. 2007 Spring; 6 (2): 70–74.

[5] Heidi Haavik, entrevue avec Spinal Research.

 

 

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